Reasoning plays a very important role in cracking any of the competitive Examinations. In this Reasoning Section candidate is to be tested on his analytical skills, Logical thinking and Mental ability. The best way to improve Reasoning ability is to develop good understanding and comprehension skills. During Examination, Mental alertness plays a major role to score Well in Reasoning Section.

In career training and development Logical thinking and development plays a crucial role. Through the practice of Reasoning we can gain the ability to lengthen the range of objects we know and can understand, analyze, foresight and a sense of direction not only in cracking Examinations but also in our day to day life. These Reasoning topics are mainly of two types. They are: 1) Verbal Reasoning and 2) Non-Verbal Reasoning.

Verbal Reasoning Topics includes Number Series, Alphabet Series, Direction Sense Test, coding-Decoding, Blood Relations, Analogy, Syllogisms, Venn Diagrams. Here we are providing you with all these topics right from the basics in such a manner which can be easily understood. Practice our Material along with the on line tests to gain confidence before attempting your Examinations.

### Number Series:

The following are the various types of Number series:

**I.ADDITION SERIES: **

1) 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, ____

Ans: 24

**Explanation: **Each number is followed is by the previous number added with 4.

4+4=8; 8+4=12; 12+4=16; 16+4=20; 20+4=24.Hence 24 is the answer.

**II. SUBTRACTION SERIES:**

2)50, 45, 40, 35, 30, ____

Ans: 25

**Explanation:** Each term is followed by the previous number minus 5.

50-5=45; 45-5=40; 40-5=35; 35-5=30; 30-5=25

**III. PRODUCT SERIES :**

3)6, 30, 150, 750, ______

Ans: 3750

**Explanation:** The given numbers are multiplied by 5 to get the next number.

**IV.ODD NUMBER SERIES:**

4) 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, ___

Ans: 13

**Explanation:** The given numbers are a series of Odd numbers. Hence the odd number next to 11 is 13. (Odd numbers are those which are not divisible by 2)

**V.PRIME NUMBER SERIES:**

5)1, 5, 11, 17, ____

Ans: 23

**Explanation:** The given numbers are a series of Prime numbers obtained by considering alternate prime numbers. The prime numbers are those which do not have factors other than 1 and itself.(1,3,5,7,11,13,17,23,29..are examples of prime number series)

**VI. n ^{2 }SERIES:**

6) 9, 25, 49, 81____

Ans: 121

**Explanation:** Each number is followed by the square of the alternate numbers. 3^{2}=9; 5^{2=}25; 7^{2}=49; 9^{2}=81; 11^{2}=121

**VII. FACTOR SERIES:**

7)13, 26, 39, 52, 65____

Ans: 78

**Explanation:** Each number is a multiple of 13.

13*1=13; 13*2=26; 13*3=39; 13*4=52; 13*5=65; 13*6=78

**VIII. n ^{3 }SERIES:**

8)8, 64, 216, 512_____

Ans: 1000

**Explanation: **The given series is obtained by the cube of the consecutive even numbers (2^{3}=8, 4^{3}=64, 6^{3}=216, 8^{3} =512 and 10^{3}=1000)

IX. n^{2 }± __ (The blank can be any natural number. It may be n^{2}, n^{3)}

9) 90,132,182,240___

Ans: 306

**Explanation: **The given series is obtained by following the pattern of n^{2}+n.

(9^{2}=81+9(n^{2}+n) =90; 11** ^{2}=**121+11=132; 13

^{2}=169+13=182; 15

^{2}=225+15=240; 17

^{2}=289+17=306)

X. n^{3 }±^{ _______ }**(**The blank can be any natural number. It may be n^{2}, n^{3})

10) 6, 13, 32, 69, ____

**Explanation: **The given series is obtained by following the pattern of n^{2}+5.

(1^{3}+5=6; 2^{3}+5=13; 3^{3}+5=32; 4^{3}+5=69; 5^{3}+5=130)

**LETTER SERIES:**

These Letter Series pattern usually consists of a series of letters following certain pattern. With one letter missing. This pattern is based on increasing or decreasing positions of corresponding letters following the order of English alphabets. The missing letter is to be determined by observing the proper sequence of the given Letter series.

**TYPE 1: ALPHABETICAL SERIES**

1) Increases by a definite number

Example: a) GHIJK____

Ans: L

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter is to be increased by one.

b) CFIL____

Ans: O

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter increases by three to its right position.

2) Decreases by a definite number

Example: a) QOMIE____

Ans: A

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter is to be decreased by four to its left position.

b)YWUSQ____

Ans: O

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter decreases by two to its left position.

3) Increasing and decreasing in a certain manner

Example: a) ABDGK____

Ans: P

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter is to be increased successively in the following manner i.e., +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 t

b) ACGM____

Ans: U

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter is to be increased in the following pattern.i.e.,+2,+4,+6,+8 to its right position.

c) ZTOKH___

Ans: F

**Explanation:** In the above series each letter is to be decreased in the following pattern .i.e.,-6,-5,-4,-3,-2 to its right position

**TYPE 1: ALPHANUMERIC SERIES:**

1) Z4B, W15D, T64H, _____

Ans: Q325M

**First Letter Series:** ZWTQ. In this series, each letter is to be decreased by 3 to its left position.

**Middle Number Series:** 4, 15, 64, 325. These series of numerals are formed by the following pattern.

1×2+2=4

4×3+3=15

15×4+4=64

64×5+5=325

Third Letter Series: BDHM. In this series each letter is to be increased following a certain pattern i.e. (+2, +4, +6, +8)

**TYPE III: – CONTINUOUS PATTERN SERIES**

**Example-1:** bab _a _ba_b_b

Ans: b b b a

**Explanation:** Here the series bab is repeated.

**Example-2:** abcb_a_a_

Ans: c c b

**Explanation:** Here the series is as follows abc/ bca /cab

**Example-3:** a b _ a _ b a a _ b _ b

Ans: a b a b

**Explanation:** Here the pattern is ab/aabb/aaabbb

**Example-4:** a b _ d _ c d _ d _

Ans: c b b d

**Explanation:** Here the pattern is abcd/bcd/cd/d

**Example-5:** a b _ d _ c b _ c _

Ans: c d d c

**Explanation:** Here the pattern is as follows abcd/bcd/cd/d